How to search for contract manufacturing service china?

What does contract manufacturing give?

Contract manufacturing frees up the time of your engineering and technical personnel to solve strategically important tasks for the development of the company.  Moreover, contract manufacturing service china allows you to reduce investment costs for the purchase of Contract equipment.

contract manufacturing service china

Contract manufacturing reduces your financial and time costs for the production of serial products, which is in constant demand on the market. Contract manufacturing of electronics is one of the types of outsourcing in the production of electronics.

In which one production and engineering group is responsible for all stages of manufacturing an electronic module (production of printed circuit boards, project completion, installation and final control).

Contract manufacturing of electronic modules allows not only to save time and financial resources of the customer, but also to significantly reduce the lead time.

What do we provide?

We provide contract manufacturing service china and produce the following boards.

  • FR-4
  • High frequency boards
  • Flexible and flexible rigid boards
  • Metal based boards

We carry out the installation of components

  • Lead and lead-free soldering of elements
  • SMD and DIP assembly
  • Installing BGA packages
  • Mounting on flexible printed circuit boards
  • Mounting on aluminum plates
  • Manufacturing of cables, cable assemblies and loops
  • Assembling products into the case

Why you must choose us?

If you choose us for your precious task then we will save your;

  • Time

Contract manufacturing service china frees up the time of your highly qualified engineering and technical personnel to solve strategically important tasks for the development of the company: developing and launching new products on the market, promoting existing product lines, mastering new promising sales channels and communicating with potential customers.

  • Investments

The transfer of electronic modules for mass-produced products allows you to reduce investment costs for the purchase of equipment for installation, quality control of the soldered connection and final inspection of the assembled product.

  • Money

We will save your money in the following ways;

  • Firstly, transferring the process of ordering and manufacturing boards
  • Secondly, purchasing and incoming control of components
  • Thirdly, contract manufacturing service chinasaves by installation and testing
  • Fourthly, outgoing control of a finished electronic module
  • Fifthly, we guarantee quality control
  • Sixthly, by checking products with random and complete control
  • Finally, by climatic and mechanical tests

How we are providing contract manufacturing service china?

  • Preparatory stage

It includes the analysis of the customer’s design documentation, the selection of possible analogues and replacements of hard-to-reach and / or expensive components. Furthermore, we search for options to reduce the cost and optimize the manufacture of the product.

  • Production and verification of pilot samples

After agreeing on the cost and technical parameters of the order, we proceed to the production of pilot images in order to check the compliance of all parameters of the product with the customer’s technical specifications using the example of their work.

  • Manufacturing of boards and purchasing of complete set

contract manufacturing service china 2021

After confirming the quality and completeness of the images, the production of boards and the purchase of complete sets for the production of the series begin.

In the production of boards, preparatory engineering processing of documentation is carried out by experts of contract manufacturing service china.

  • Installation of the product

Upon the availability of a complete list of product nomenclature in our warehouses, the installation of the project is started.

  • Soldering quality testing

It is carried out using an automated optical inspection system. The following defects are excluded during the verification process: missing, shifted, misaligned component, polarity reversal of the component, non-soldering, chip lifting, solder lifting, component not inserted.

  • Functional testing

It carries out by contract manufacturing service china at the request of the customer. This type of testing requires a functional control program that fully or partially duplicates the functionality of the module.

When carrying out functional control, the customer receives 100% working products with a guaranteed absence of defects. If necessary, the testing program can be written by our engineering staff.

General questions of choosing contract manufacturing service china

From time to time I get questions regarding the choice of PCB contract manufacturing:

  • Firstly, where to order the manufacture of a printed circuit board
  • Secondly, how to choose a suitable manufacturer for your projects
  • Thirdly, what to look for
  • Fourthly, what is the difference between one or another contract production of printed circuit boards
  • Fifthly, which of the contract manufacturers of printed circuit boards will make the board cheaper / faster / better

Importance of contract manufacturing service china

Maybe this is a high-tech complex device, or, conversely, an amateur development. In the meantime, the methodology for selecting the right contract manufacturing service china remains unchanged.

To begin with, it’s worth understanding one important thing. The determination of the requirements for the purchased printed circuit boards used for the manufacture of electronic devices is made by the customers.

And we end up choosing one or another PCB manufacturer. Is the selected manufacturer the most suitable? This question will remain open until we learn how to choose manufacturers of printed circuit boards.

The procedure for evaluating and selecting contract manufacturing service china

Contract manufacturing service china assessment is carried out to determine the extent to which it meets its requirements. A supplier is considered eligible if it is capable of supplying printed circuit boards or electronic assemblies:

  • Firstly, the required quality
  • Secondly, by the required time
  • Thirdly, at a reasonable price

They greeted by clothes. And acquaintance with manufacturers of printed circuit boards (suppliers) should start with a visit to their website.

Summary contract manufacturing service china

At this stage, it is helpful to gather as much information as possible about a possible future partner. You can start by examining the supplier’s website. It is hardly worth trusting a supplier who does not have one. If the manufacturer of printed circuit boards in question has a website, it looks good and inspires confidence – let’s move on.

Sample Process of Prototype Circuit Board Assembly 2021

As an example of the execution of prototype circuit board assembly, consider the sample below.

Prototype Circuit Board Assembly

This drawing make in accordance with the recommendations of GOST on a scale of 1: 1. Moreover, this example shows the main and side views, which occupy most of the work area.

Generally, the top right corner of the drawing contains a 3D projection of the printed circuit board. Although 3D view is optional, this projection improves perception.

Role of positional designations

On all assembly drawings, it is necessary to indicate the reference designations of the elements. Position numbers should be consistent with the developed specification. However, do not mark every item. In order not to load the working field with unnecessary graphic information, only the main elements are marked on it, to which the reference designations are attributed:

  • Firstly, details
  • Secondly, standard products
  • Thirdly, materials

What are the Installation options in prototype circuit board assembly?

The main task of the prototype circuit board assembly drawing is to form ideas about electrical radio products and other parts, how they are placed and options for installation on a printed circuit board.

In all drawings of printed circuit boards at the points of attachment of installation products (bushings, holders, brackets and other elements), it recommend to perform local or separately taken out cuts.


Having entrusted the manufacture of printed circuit boards, it is imperative to keep your finger on the pulse. Especially when it comes to electronic units (printed circuit boards with wiring).

How to do prototype circuit board assembly?

List important criteria and periodically report on a score to your PCB supplier / manufacturer. For example, given the following criteria:

  • Firstly, product quality
  • Secondly, fare
  • Thirdly, price level
  • Fourthly, prompt delivery
  • Fifthly, convenience of interaction

Description of the criteria for evaluating suppliers for prototype circuit board assembly

  • Product quality

According to this criterion, the assessment carry out on the basis of information on the quality of prototype circuit board assembly received during the analyzed period of time. An unambiguous answer to this question is possible only if there was already some experience of cooperation.

  • Fare

This criterion makes it possible to assess the availability of courier delivery services for printed circuit boards based on the options / options of transport logistics companies.

For example, the supplier organizes delivery by a courier company at his own expense, or with payment by the recipient.

  • Price level

The criterion allows you to assess the level of financial availability of prototype circuit board assembly services for the production of printed circuit boards expertly. This is based on an analysis of the average price level for a group of printed circuit boards from a given supplier.

Prototype Circuit Board Assembly 2021

One of the factors influencing the price level is the status of the PCB supplier. A supplier of printed circuit boards can be a manufacturer with their own production, or they can act as an intermediary.

  • Efficiency of deliveries

The assessment carries out by comparing the actual delivery times of printed circuit boards with the declared ones:

  • Firstly, the supplier delivers products in accordance with the stated terms;
  • Secondly, the discrepancies between the actual and stated dates are insignificant;
  • Thirdly, deviations from the stated terms exceed the permissible value,

Also, your attention should pay to the systematic nature of violations of delivery dates.  Similarly, this will make it possible to form a more objective assessment of the PCB manufacturer according to this criterion.

How does convenience of interaction with prototype circuit board assembly affect?

Ease of interaction with prototype circuit board assembly plays an important role in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. Positive factors in this case will be:

  • First, lack of language barrier
  • Second, availability of personal managers;
  • Third, competence of employees
  • Fourth, loyalty of the PCB supplier

How to choose a PCB supplier?

First, compare the resulting overall supplier or manufacturer ratings (how well you meet your requirements).

Second, process the additional information that you have gathered about the vendor. This will allow you to select the prototype circuit board assembly manufacturer that best suits your needs.

Moreover, a trial batch can ordere to assess the technical competence of a PCB manufacturer. An objective assessment of the results of this work will make it possible to finally determine. In particular, make a conclusion about the supplier’s compliance with your requirements.

Additional factors and criteria for evaluating suppliers of printed circuit boards

Here are some factors.

  • does the company have the necessary technological equipment, infrastructure, for the manufacture of printed circuit boards (electronic units)
  • Is there a plan for the implementation of a Quality Management System (QMS) in the electronics contract manufacturing
  • availability of valid certificates
  • Quality Policy and Objectives
  • loading of production facilities
  • the largest customers

Overview of PCB manufacturers

In conclusion, I would like to recommend specific prototype circuit board assembly manufacturers of printed circuit boards. These are proven organizations that I have dealt with. And the experience of cooperation with which I can share.

There is no doubt about the competence and reliability of the contract production of printed circuit boards.

How would you say about 6PCBA?

In my opinion, this is the first PCB manufacturer worth mentioning. 6pcba has its own production of simple printed circuit boards. The products of this supplier are characterized by:

  • relatively low prices (in relation to domestic competitors);
  • high speed of manufacture and delivery of double-layer printed circuit boards.


  • lack of personal managers (to resolve some issues, you have to wait a long time for a connection with the right specialist)
  • staff turnover

If you need to solve the issue of quickly manufacturing prototype circuit board assembly at quite affordable prices, it is unlikely that among domestic manufacturers you can find someone more suitable for this request than 6pcba.

A-Contract and PCB Technology

Work on complex high-tech projects can entrust to the “sharks” of the contract manufacturing business. First of all, we are talking about contract manufacturing:

  • Firstly, A-Contract
  • Secondly, PSB Technology

These suppliers do not have printed circuit boards of their own production; however, they work according to the selection system directly with the manufacturers.


  • own production facilities for assembling components on printed circuit boards
  • extensive database on the production and manufacture of printed circuit boards and electronic components
  • staff of personal managers and highly qualified technical specialists

5 Facts about Box build Manufacturing Assembly

Here box build manufacturing assembly comes in detail.  We shall also focus on logistics system, the modernization and refinement of the product for mass production, the building of relations between the customer and the contract manufacturer.

Box build Manufacturing Assembly china

Use modern technologies in box build manufacturing assembly

When entrepreneurs decide what to do, in which industry to apply their strength and desire, they face a huge number of questions – both strategic and practical. What difficulties must be overcome, what costs will have to bear, in what dependence may business organizers find themselves on third parties?

Box build manufacturing assembly process at one of the Indian factories

In fact, today no one has a monopoly on equipment and surface mount technology – you can buy it from many manufacturers, depending on the tasks you face – pilot or large-scale production of box build manufacturing assembly does not fundamentally differ from each other in terms of technology.

You can also freely buy components and accessories – they will be the same for everyone.

Differences lie in other aspects – organizational, geographical, personnel, logistics. Effectiveness of their management actually means fine-tuning the gearbox. So, to create an automatic production of electronic modules is important.

Selection of equipment in box build manufacturing assembly

Initial knowledge of using the equipment is usually comes by the supplier and / or dealer. We will not talk in more detail about the technological process.  Those who wish can find the necessary information both on the websites of educational institutions and leading contract manufacturers.

The history of origin of contract electronics manufacturers is most often from the creation by the developer of his own box build manufacturing assembly production. And then, as the efficiency of his work grows, it has turned into an independent unit.

Indeed, the productivity of modern equipment in most cases exceeds the own needs of one (own) enterprise. In this case, the production capacity is “loaded” with orders from the outside.

Where to locate the box build manufacturing assembly production?

Labor cost

In the issue of the location of production, the cost of labor can play a very important role. This role is insignificant in the case of a regional approach, when it plans to provide KP services to customers from one city or region. The cost of labor does not play a role in the case of a developer creating his own production during box build manufacturing assembly.


Let’s try to figure out how things are in China. Unfortunately, there are still more negative factors hindering the rapid development of high-tech industries in China than positive ones. Let me give you two examples: TV manufacturers were able to lobby for an increase in import duty rates on TVs to 30% (recall that the rates on components are 10.15%).

Why the cost of things is lower in China than other countries?

It seems quite obvious that “in China, everything is much cheaper and more affordable than ours.” In this common stereotype there is both a grain of truth and non-obviousness, and even myths. Indeed, the average salary (and in particular the standard of living) in China is still significantly lower than in developed countries. However, the cost of living is also lower.

Moreover, with a significantly lower wage in China, there are no problems in the labor market (at least for low-skilled labor). And Chinese workers of  build manufacturing assembly, as a rule, work with much more zeal.

What is the estimated cost of box build manufacturing assembly?

But often we forget the old truth – “overseas a heifer is a half, and a ruble is a ferry”, and we do not analyze the economic characteristics of production. We believe that the prices of Chinese contract manufacturers are lower than those of European ones, but at what expense?

You cannot estimate the cost of work without considering relationship management issues. Payment for business trips, risks with misunderstandings should come into account in calculating the cost of the build manufacturing assembly. And then a China enterprise, whose production services are more expensive, may turn out to be a more profitable partner.
Box build Manufacturing Assembly 2021

Benefits of using modern equipment in box build manufacturing assembly

The use of modern equipment, on the one hand, reduces the share of labor costs in the cost of the product.  On the other hand, it requires highly qualified employees. And highly skilled labor in China can be even more expensive than in China. And then the argument of cheap labor loses all strength.

We have one of the world’s leading contract electronics manufacturers. It has a plant both in China and several plants in China, the cost of machine-minute and man-minute at these plants is practically equal (or differs by no more than 10 … 15%).

Quality of box build manufacturing assembly

The importance of the quality of box build manufacturing assembly often underestimates by many Russian KP customers. But here we can talk not only about the quality of products in terms of technology, but also about the quality of relationships.  The discipline of deliveries and the effectiveness of working contacts also work with this.

Why do you need Box build manufacturing assembly?

Today, a contract Box build manufacturing assembly manufacturer is good not only to formally have an ISO 9000 certificate, but also to have really working processes and quality systems. This guarantees not only the measurement of quality parameters, but also their analysis. It comes on the basis of which and quality improvement measures are good to implement.

At the majority of build manufacturing assembly enterprises, the utilization of production capacities is 30-40%. This is mainly due to the fact that technological equipment comes with both morally and physically. The average age of a standard piece of equipment is 15 years. It is a sad fact that the typical PP technology lags behind the global one by at least five years.

Summary Box build manufacturing assembly

Here is another interesting indicator – the volume of consumption of electronics in the country. The market that the electronics industry can count on is, according to various estimates, about $ 5 billion a year. This once again underlines the importance of the industry.

What materials we use in aluminum printed circuit boards?

In order for the aluminum printed circuit boards to be of high quality, you first need to choose the base material for it. One of the most popular materials now is to be foil-clad fiberglass. It has the structure of a laminated plastic, in which fibers alternate with a polymer binder. This can be Bakelite, epoxy or polyester resins.

What are the fiberglass laminate brands common?

The fiberglass laminate has many brands: CTT, STEB, STEF-P, SF, etc. And the abbreviation FR often comes in the description, meaning the fire resistance of the material. The higher the number after these letters, the more fire resistance the printed circuit board will have. But most often common glass fiber laminates of normalized flammability FR-4.

And since fiberglass is a dielectric, copper foil is common for the conductive layer in aluminum printed circuit boards. It comes onto fiberglass, and then galvanic copper is built up. The thickness of the copper foil layer can be any, but most often it is 12, 18, 35, 50, 70 and 105 microns.

Why aluminum is common?

aluminum printed circuit boards

In addition to fiberglass, aluminum is also common as a base material. But since, unlike fiberglass, aluminum conducts current, another layer is added between it and the copper foil – a dielectric layer. These printed circuit boards are common in products that require large amounts of heat dissipation, such as LED lighting fixtures.

Base materials with ceramic or Teflon fillers are also common. This is a very rare group of materials common mainly for the production of equipment in the aviation and space industries.

What materials you choose for the overlay and underlay?

The overlay material is good to reduce the amount of burrs. Moreover, it improves the quality and accuracy of drilling. Similarly, it increases the resource of the aluminum printed circuit boards.

In turn, the backing material also helps to reduce burrs, and also allows you not to smear the cut product on the work surface and helps to cool the cutting tool. The backing material should be firm but easy to drill to avoid wearing out the tool.

What material can be common other than aluminum in aluminum printed circuit boards?

For printed circuit boards of a low accuracy class, you can choose getinax, phenolic paper or thin sheets of fiberglass as an overlay material. But for a higher accuracy class, it is already worth using thin aluminum sheets. They will reduce the vibration of the tool during drilling and the adhesion of resin to the cutting edge of the tool.

All this will help to improve drilling accuracy. However, if you need printed circuit boards of 5th grade and higher, then ordinary aluminum sheet will not be enough either. In this case, it is worth using aluminum-based overlays covered with a lubricating layer in aluminum printed circuit boards. This layer makes the drill less likely to slip to the side when drilling into a bag.

What is the importance of aluminum printed circuit boards in electronics?

PCBs in electronics are similar to cement in construction, so significant influence, along with electronic components, they have on the fundamental characteristics of electronic instrumentation. It would seem that if this is so, then the movement towards the perfection of printed circuit boards should be more dynamic and decisive.


However, the capital intensity of PCB manufacturing is so high and the market price of PCBs is so paltry that PCB ROI is the slowest process relative to other electronics industries. Throughout the long-term ROI process, it is difficult to justify new expensive purchases to correct mistakes made during the aluminum printed circuit boards project creation phase.

How choice of aluminum printed circuit boards is important?

Therefore, the choice of a set of equipment for the production of printed circuit boards is a responsible process, requiring a professional approach and due trust of the management (investors) to the professionalism of its technologists.

A mistake in the choice of technology and the equipment corresponding to it has a heavy effect on the subsequent production results. And therefore, it requires special care.

What are the principles for choosing equipment for the production of aluminum printed circuit boards?

There are several principles for choosing equipment for aluminum printed circuit boards. Some of them are:

1-Management of the enterprise

The first to enter the process is the management of the enterprise. He will have to make a decision – whether to produce payments for domestic consumption or for the market, or for both. As a rule, domestic consumption is insignificant and small production volumes of boards justify themselves. It happens only in the cost of functionally finished products.

But here, too, the average annual output per worker in the radio-electronic industry is about 10 thousand dollars. It is difficult for state-owned enterprises to cross this line due to rigidly fixed profitability standards. This leaves no funds either for decent wages or for the development of aluminum printed circuit boards.

2-Selection of equipment

The demand for small volumes of such production comes by an inexpensive set of equipment.  Here, we cannot meet the market requirements for the quality and accuracy class of boards. The only thing they can compete with is efficiency, short-term execution of simple orders.

But the capacity of this market sector is insignificant and can provide sufficient income for only a small team of 2-3 people. This path is unpromising for the development of aluminum printed circuit boards.
aluminum printed circuit boards 2021

3-Contract manufacturing

Another option is to work on the market will require significant capital investments. It is in order to be positively different from others, from those already present on the market. There are many things that can differ both in the Chinese market and in the foreign one. But it is best to use the strengths of the Chinese cadre of technologists and production workers.

They come to work for low wages and thus compete with Europe. They are able to create a highly intelligent product of aluminum printed circuit boards and in this they have advantages over the Southeast sector of the market (China, India, Taiwan, etc.). NS.). Chinese technologists have not yet lost their professionalism.

What is the importance of aluminum printed circuit boards?

It no longer makes sense to create and develop the production of simple boards. There are a lot of them.

We should remember that production facilities in this area of ​​production are periodically idle.

If we evaluate our potential capabilities, looking at the foreign production of aluminum printed circuit boards, we can see that we have a lot to develop. The whole question is in investments and the sober courage of enterprise managers in the development of these investments in the development of production.

Is mass production possible in prototype printed circuit board?

At the lowest level are programs focused on the design of prototype printed circuit board and the initial preparation of topologies. Such PCB design programs are generally free and incorporated into more powerful PCB design systems.

prototype printed circuit board

What are the advantages of prototype printed circuit board?

The advantage of the program is that after generating Gerber and NC Drill files the user continues to work in the familiar graphical shell. This does not require learning a new interface. The package has a basic set of tools for checking special rules DFM (Design for Manufacturing) and DFF:

  • editing topologies
  • panelizing
  • generating control files for prototype printed circuit board

Gerber RS-274X and Excellon are common here as the main output formats of the PCB scheme. It is possible to generate data files in the ODB ++ format.

What is the use of Excel CAM in prototype printed circuit board?

Another product aimed exclusively at the initial preparation of CAM data is the ExcelCAM product come as part of the Zuken CADSTAR design system. This is a stand-alone application, a free version of which is available on the developer’s site.

The product provides the ability to:

  • import photo output
  • drilling and milling data
  • Analyze
  • edit and optimize them with subsequent output to Gerber and Excell on formats

A very useful function is the ability to generate design files for the CADSTAR system in the textual format CADIF from Gerber data.

What design package is common for prototype printed circuit board?

More powerful solutions include the Zuken CR-5000 design package, the preparation of production inside of which comes out using the prototype printed circuit board. This product can hardly execute an initial training tool.

Similarly, it provides users with a very high level of functionality, in fact, reflecting the overall level of design in the CR-5000 system.

prototype printed circuit board 2021

In addition to the usual optimization and generation of output files, it maintains a single database for development and production processes. This allows you to integrate production elements into an existing project. Thus, it is possible to add graphical information to the project on special technological layers.

What are the soft wares common for?

With products from other manufacturers of prototype printed circuit board software such as:

  1. Mentor Graphics and Cadence
  2. standalone software packages are available

These are worth discussing separately. First of all, we should note that the products of Wise Software Solutions.

This company markets two software products: GerbTool and VisualCAM, which have a similar interface. It provides users with a wide range of functions for processing CAM files.

Development of prototype printed circuit board panels in the GerbTool system

PCB programs come by the ODB ++ data format as the main one. This allows a complete set of design information (layer topologies, drills, netlists, lists of common materials) to receive directly from the design system. Moreover, it facilitates the subsequent processing of this data.

In addition, the packages support the import and export of Gerber RS-274D and RS-274X, FIRE9000, Excellon, Direct CAM, IPC-D-356 and others, as well as PADS ASCII, which makes them attractive to users of the Mentor PADS design system for prototype printed circuit board.

Benefit of Downstream Technology

Another manufacturer of PCB routing software, Downstream Technologies, can boast. Moreover,  tit has retained its independence and is the developer of the most popular CAM350 pre-production system in China. This popularity is due to the high degree of integration with the P-CAD 200x design system (formerly ACCEL EDA).


It is very popular in our country. Several years ago, the developers made a qualitative leap in product development and created a new user interface.  It appeared on standard functions of the Microsoft Windows operating system. Hence, it greatly simplified access to the existing functions of the CAM350 package, and also removed the restrictions on expanding its functionality.

Topology analysis using Streams Rule Check tool in CAM350 system

Concluding the review of mid-range autonomous CAM systems, one cannot fail to mention the company Perbaigix (formerly Lauenig). It is famous for having previously decent prototype printed circuit board relatively cheap but efficient Pulsar series photoplotters. The firm later focused on software development and currently offers users a line of products, the powerful of which is the CAMmaster.

What is the advantage of CAMmaster?

The advantages of the product include a very developed system of macros that allows you to record all the sequences of operations performed, modify, group and save them. The subsequent launch of such macros allows achieving a high degree of automation in the processing of projects using a standard set of DRC, DFM and DFF checks. Let’s add,

Free Gerber ViewMate by Pentalogix

Powerful prototype printed circuit board solutions include products from the alliance of three companies Orbotech. Similarly, each company offers its own a set of products that integrate into a coherent system.

We are professional in the supply of technological equipment for the production of photomasks, direct exposure of foil materials, as well as optical verification systems for printed circuit boards.

Is mass production possible in prototype printed circuit board?

Today, mass production in the Southeast Asian countries dictates the redistribution of producers’ costs. Furthermore, the global shortage of copper and the increase in prices for materials for the manufacture of dielectrics affect the costs of PCB manufacturers. Similarly, it reduces their profits.

At present, production of prototype circuit board continues to grow and is approaching more than 3/4 of the world PP production. But the producers of the Southeast Asian countries note a number of problems that dictate a different production policy.  Moreover, let’s note the most significant of them:

The cost of labor and service costs increases in prototype printed circuit board

Especially critical for the Southeast Asian countries is the labor cost of highly qualified specialists;

Increase in prices for energy carriers and raw materials;

In this regard, experts note a decrease in the dynamics of growth in prototype printed circuit board production in Southeast Asia. Similarly, it happened at the end of 2005 to 10-11% and further stable preservation of this indicator until 2010. According to forecasts, the world growth in the production of printed circuit boards will be about 9-10%.

Summary prototype printed circuit board

Taking into account the current situation, Western analysts note a constant increase in the cost of the final product. Furthermore, it leads to a gradual leveling off of world PP prices. Interestingly, SEA companies that have captured the American market with dumped prices are now complaining about a strong decline in profits.

How to order custom printed circuit board in 2021?

Some custom printed circuit board companies leave the contract manufacturing market and concentrate on other areas. This article will help you figure out how to make the best choice of a contract manufacturer and build a relationship with him.

custom printed circuit board

Use of electronic manufacturing for custom printed circuit board

Firstly, you need to determine whether your company should use contract electronics manufacturing (CP) services. Like any business tool, KP has its own scope and limitations. So, it is undesirable:

  • Transfer to a contract manufacturer unique processes that determine the competitive advantages of your enterprise
  • Transfer several important functions to one contract manufacturer at once
  • Since there is a risk of information leakage and the appearance of a new competitor
  • Go to commercial proposal when cost reduction is not the main factor
  • If the cost of managing the relationship with the contract manufacturer becomes high

How company achieves the goals during custom printed circuit board?

If there are no contraindications, then the company, using the commercial proposal, achieves the following goals during the process of custom printed circuit board:

  • Cost reduction
  • Improving the quality of products
  • Saving human and financial resources
  • Increasing labor productivity
  • The use of advanced technologies

What are the three important factors?

According to experts, the success of outsourcing, including contract manufacturing, depends mainly on three factors:

1) The right choice of a partner

2) Ongoing relationship management

3) Similarly, a correctly drawn up contract

Algorithm for choosing a contract manufacturer for custom printed circuit board

Today there are several standard approaches to choosing a contract manufacturer for custom printed circuit board:

  • The best price among the proposals provided
  • Only this manufacturer is able to perform the required work
  • Only in Asia, where conditions, equipment, etc. are better
  • Moreover, the one who was advised to turn to “experienced”
  • Each method has its own reason, but none of them is optimal

How to discuss the price?

The best price is easy to negotiate with other contract manufacturers through a series of negotiations; not all foreign manufacturers outperform domestic ones in a number of parameters, and the flexibility of foreign ones often leaves much to get. Furthermore, unfamiliar manufacturers after a certain time may become your partners, etc.

When choosing a contract manufacturer for custom printed circuit board, the most important are three factors:

  • The cost of production services and equipment,
  • Product quality
  • Strict adherence to deadlines

How the cost of the production can be determined?

There are two possible approaches to packaging: components are purchased by the customer – or the purchase is entrusted to a contract manufacturer. The first option is quite troublesome, therefore, with the exception of special cases; they usually go along the second path. At the same time, the company remains to monitor changes in prices for electronic components.

prototype printed circuit board

The cost of production in custom printed circuit board services determines by the:

  • technological equipment of the enterprise
  • the size of the ordered batch
  • Moreover, the technological complexity of the product
  • and the required level of quality control

Particular attention must be paid to the effectiveness of the management of the contract manufacturer, since in the end everything depends on it.

What should be the optimal manufacturer selection algorithm? 

Here is the defining a list of functions that you are ready to delegate to a contract manufacturer. The list of functions is determined by the efficiency of your internal services (if any) and the expediency of their creation, maintenance, development.

Determination of a group of contract manufacturers of custom printed circuit board who are able to perform the required work.  Similarly, they have interest in working with you. I propose the following sequence for choosing a contract manufacturer by project stages:

Development of custom printed circuit board

At this stage, you have already predefined a group of enterprises with which you can work in the future. This choice depends on the characteristics of your product, such as:

  • The element base incorporated in the development
  • Accuracy class of printed circuit boards
  • The number of products in the series (weekly, monthly, etc.)
  • Requirements for quality control of manufactured products
  • The level of training of technical specialists

Selection of one or more custom printed circuit board

How to identify a group of manufacturers for printed circuit board that are most interested and able to meet the needs of the customer? Let’s try to make a rough estimate by dividing all manufacturers into three groups:

  • domestic manufacturers
  • foreign manufacturers
  • Moreover, foreign manufacturers in the domestic market

Selection of a contract manufacturer at the pilot production stage

The pilot production stage comes by small batches. It is difficult for both suppliers and manufacturers. At this stage, developers check the correctness of circuitry solutions, manufacturers often “pull out” technological errors of developers, suppliers of electronic components puzzle over where to get small quantities and even at a reasonable price.

Consultation with manufacturers

Consulting Foreign manufacturers of custom printed circuit board are not good in consulting and helping at the stage of pilot production. This process takes a long time. Similarly, it requires the involvement of technical specialists, and the prospects for the return from this work are very vague.

The rating is “bad”. The situation with foreign manufacturers on the domestic market is somewhat better. Moreover, they understand Chinese reality more deeply and can better assess the prospects of a particular customer, but due to the fact that their business models are built in the same way as those of foreign manufacturers, they take up experimental batches extremely reluctant.

Granting loans for custom printed circuit board

For a domestic manufacturer, a deferred payment or partial prepayment is often important.  Similarly, we will rate foreign manufacturers as “bad”, for foreign manufacturers of custom printed circuit board in the domestic market.  Furthermore, we will rate it as “satisfactory”, for domestic manufacturers – “good” – the motives are clear here.

According to the degree of accessibility, geographic location and logistics, domestic and foreign manufacturers in the domestic market will be rated “good”, foreign manufacturers – “bad”.

How to outsource electronic printed circuit assembling in China?

electronic printed circuit assembling in China
If you’re reading this article, you’re probably already aware that your business needs electronic printed circuit assembling. You know that investing in outsourcing helps to reduce costs and increase profitability. You’re analyzing several variables to choose the best on the market. But do you know how to recognize a good manufacturer of electronic boards.

Responsibilities on electronic printed circuit assembling

Electronic printed circuit assembling; goes beyond speech and really can deliver a final product according to your expectations and those of the market? The electronics industry needs a lot of strategy and planning to continue growing. Although the performance of the segment in 2020 has improved, major challenges come for 2021.

To remain competitive, it is necessary not only to reduce expenses (which are easy to achieve with outsourcing), but also delivering excellent products. So, if you want to leverage your company’s profits, read on, and discover how a good electronic board factory works!

How to hire electronic printed circuit assembling company?

Knowledge is power. And this in every imaginable way. Including your business. Knowing what a good electronics board factory is helps you make a choice that will weigh heavily on how successful your project will be — and how profitable the result of its implementation will be.

Electronic printed circuit assembling is true for different cases, from the validation of a product to the production of a consolidated business. In other words: from a prototype to a whole batch. Therefore, taking care that every detail is done with maximum planning makes a total difference in the result.

How full outsourcing can be a very safe option; circuit assembling

One of the topics we covered earlier is how full outsourcing can be a very safe option and offer benefits from a good electronic board factory. In this case, the CM is responsible for everything that involves the assembly of the board. The main advantage is that there are no miscommunications and errors arising from minor incompatibilities.

Therefore, if you are familiar with complete outsourcing (electronic printed circuit assembling) and are looking for the best electronic board factory to deliver your project in this modality, you may be asking yourself:

What makes a CM have a great differential?  

  1. First, commitment to the customer
  2. Second, attention to the details
  3. Technical capacity
  4. Moreover, capable professionals
  5. State-of-the-art equipment
  6. Additionally, market knowledge
  7. Reputation
  8. Consolidated experience



This is one of the most important production steps in a good electronic board factory. Of course, all the others are decisive for success, but pre-production is the stage where planning comes into play. It is at this stage that the organization of processes and inputs for the manufacture of plates takes place, which makes all the difference in the result.

Project documentation; electronic printed circuit assembling

Even before starting the production process, project documentation and information manufacturers receive. From there, a registration of the product structure and a document with assembly instructions and process sheets appear. This is important for guiding employees and for programming machines correctly.

With the documentation ready, we can receive the materials. Moreover, it enters the system and quality inspection is carried out. Then, the components and other materials go to the stock, where the adequate storage appears for each type of product (electronic printed assembling)

2. Production; electronic printed circuit assembling

All documentation come in the previous step will guide the processes that we will describe below. At this point, there is a process difference between the SMD and PTH line. In SMD, the components are inserted onto the surface of the printed circuit board,

Electronic printed circuit assembling and in PTH holes

1-SMD line: Initially, the code of each board is engraved through the laser equipment. Then, the application and automatic inspection of the solder paste, automatic insertion of components, welding of components in the reflow furnace and automatic inspection of components is carried out.

2-PTH Line: Secondly, in this modality of assembly, the first task is the preform of the components. Then, the assembly and soldering of the components in the wave soldering equipment. printed circuit assembling is of great significance in PTH holes.
Complex PCB assembly 2021

3. POST-PRODUCTION; electronic printed circuit assembling

In both modalities of assembly, SMD and PTH, the final inspection carries out. At this stage, the plates are sent to the factory’s quality sector. In it, some criteria are established, which will be common in the careful inspection of each one of the parts.

A common practice that is easy to request by the customer is the performance of functional tests. It is very important that the functional tests are important to hold regularly.

Working steps of electronic printed circuit assembling

Before the final product of electronic printed circuit assembles, steps are important to do. Because when the tests are complete with the finished product and problems get verification, it is necessary to open the equipment. They often generate more work and even running the risk of damaging some parts — which means damage to your business.

Another activity that may request by the customer is the application of conformal coating. It serves to provide electrical insulation for the board and its components, and is also useful for protecting against moisture, dust, and other oxidizing substances. One of the segments that most requires this extra layer of protection is the agricultural sector.

Electronic printed circuit assembling and chemical products

As in equipment, electronic printed circuit assembling intended for use in the field, the boards expose to weather conditions and the action of chemical products such as fertilizers and pesticides.

Also, according to customer demand, mechanical assembly of the product is easy to carry out. This means that it is easy to return to the factory with the hardware fully or partially integrated into the board.

4. Delivery; electronic printed circuit assembling

Before the board or integrated product leaves the electronic board factory, a quality audit is performed. Once again, the quality department will carry out an inspection, and only after we are absolutely sure that everything complies with the highest quality parameters, will the order be shipped.

It is important to emphasize that the success of all these steps depends mainly on the partnership between the contracting company. You can contact the electronic board factory of electronic printed circuit assembling.


Communicating clearly, respecting deadlines, and understanding the importance of the demands made by customers is essential. The proper functioning of the equipment and the organization of employees depend on this process compliance.

2021 Best Circuit Board Assembly Practices: Multi Stage Quality Control process

Manufacturing and supply of printed Circuit Board Assembly

We place orders for the production of printed Circuit Board Assembly at factories in China, which operate using modern world technologies. Moreover, the world’s leading electronics manufacturers use their services. Partnership relations developed over the years allow us to guarantee the fulfillment of each order on time and with the required level of quality.

Circuit Board Assembly
Unfortunately, at the present time we do not use printed circuit boards produced in the territory of the Russian Federation due to the suboptimal price / quality ratio.

TNT installation

Manual installation carries out by qualified personnel in a specially equipped area. Moreover, we use only modern equipment and soldering materials.  In addition, on the site, output components, harnesses, dimensional elements install that are difficult to install using an automatic installer. Similarly,  we pay great attention to personnel training for Circuit Board Assembly.

Our training system guarantees the availability of the required skills and knowledge to complete each step of the production process. Highly qualified personnel, modern soldering equipment and materials make it possible to obtain high-quality manual assembly of lead-out components.

Completion of production programs

In its activities, our uses an extensive range of radio electronic components. Furthermore, this comes from authorized distributors or directly from the world’s leading manufacturers.
We work only with suppliers who provide quality assurance and adhere to the terms and predictability of deliveries.


For many positions of radio-electronic components and Circuit Board Assembly, we have registered production programs with the manufacturer, or long-term supply contracts. The absence of intermediaries in the procurement chain allows us to offer you, our customers, the lowest prices for components and materials.

Moisture protection of Circuit Board Assembly varnishing of modules

As a means of protecting electronic components from corrosive and aggressive chemical environments, we offer a service of applying a moisture-proof coating, which eliminates the need for additional protection methods.  Moreover, if necessary, the coating operation is included in the manufacturing or assembly process of the product.

Multi-stage quality control

Stages of control during production:

  • Control of the first sample
  • Moreover, Operational control
  • Optical inspection
  • Similarly, Output control


To confirm the performance of the manufactured Circuit Board Assembly, it is possible to carry out testing and tests. Here, we carry them in accordance with TU or methods agreed with the customer.

Types of tests

  • Functional testing
    Functional testing of products (if the customer has a test methodology and test stands).
    In the absence of a methodology and stands, it is possible to design and manufacture them.
  • Electromechanical tests
    checking the performance of the product in regulated modes and conditions.

Body assembly

Our company provides services for body assembly of products:

  • Manufacturing, Circuit Board Assemblyand refinement of cases according to customer requirements
  • Installation of boards, power supplies and other components into ready-made cases with subsequent marking, testing, packaging
  • Assembly of various blocks, control and switching boards.

Circuit boards: carriers for your electronic components

If you are looking for professional carriers for your electronic components, the printed circuit boards are perfect for your individual use.

Moreover, the plates are common for professional mechanical fastening and electrical connection. Almost every one of their electronic devices contains multiple circuit boards made of an electrically insulated material. They also contain adhesive and conductive compounds to it.

High-tech printed circuit boards and Circuit Board Assembly

Whether high-tech circuit board or multilayer circuit board (up to 48 layers), the Circuit Board Assembly series are decisive for business customers or private customers. So-called “rigid-flex printed circuit boards” are suitable, for example, for very tight spaces or for several bending cycles.

The product range also includes laser-cut “SMD stencils2”, which are suitable for the assembly of “SMD components” and for toroidal core transformations that have variable voltages and powers. Furthermore, you can buy circuit boards with 1 to 48 layers and choose from the high-tech options. The “Flex PCB” plates have up to ten layers while the “Rigid-Flex PCB” plates have up to 14 layers.
Circuit Board Assembly 2021

Which are the best practices in Circuit Board Assembly?

The surface: The determination of the normal routing surface requires the use of a ratio with respect to the footprint and the routable surface as well as the connectors.

The autorouter or automatic routing: This is important in the world of electrical CAD . All software in CAD mode must be equipped with an automatic router even if its performance is less efficient.

File format: No general rule for this parameter. But the most common format remains the “GERBER  ”.

The multi-card structure: You can see the connection of several cards in the same circuit by inter-card connectors. In this case, structure the complete circuit to see where you can cut between the cards.

PCB routing is also the width of the tracks, reflow constraints to name a few.

Which type of material is common in this type of Circuit Board Assembly?

The core is made of aluminum and is also through-contacted. The plates of Circuit Board Assembly contain an ultra-fine conductor and have a filmless laser direct exposure. Further technical data are half bores (metallized), thin laminates from 50 µm core, a customer-specific layer structure and so-called “sandwich structures” for the panels.

More product details of the panels

You can also find plated-through slots in the plates, the material is thick copper, the thickness of the printed circuit board you choose individually. Metal core panels usually have an aluminum core of around 1.5 millimeters. Also, flexible printed circuit boards (surface, for example of chemical gold) or precession SMT stencils are lasered available.

With the multilayer boards you can order up to 48 layers and these are important for the integration of the modern HDI layouts. Such multilayer boards are perfect for all designs with a high packing density. The Circuit Board Assembly manufacturer will advise you whether you need multi-layer boards with eight, twelve, and four or even up to 48 layers.

The printed circuit board design help

If you buy the circuit boards online, you can use the circuit board design aid to select your correct board, for example when it comes to the current carrying capacity or the conductor tracks. You can use it to configure the SMD stencils online yourself. If you want the highest degree of accuracy, the laser-cut SMD stencils are the best solution.

Summary Circuit Board Assembly

Our professional service providers are equipped with fully automated assembly lines and state-of-the-art manual workstations for Circuit Board Assembly in the prototype and series production area. Samples or small series are equipped on your desired date and with the same quality as in large-scale production. The typical lot sizes in the production area are between 1 and 100,000 pieces.

A step by Step guide to PCB Routing Design for Manufacturing Analysis

Circuit board creation: A brief introduction to the subject

Printed circuit boards are the heart of every electrical device that’s why the importance of Design for manufacturing analysis is increased. They are responsible for connecting the individual electrical components.

The increasing number of electrical devices existing in the area gives the circuit board industry a new high. Almost everyone today has a smartphone, computer, and other electrical extras.

Design for Manufacturing Analysis

Just imagine how small and incredibly complicated those in Apple’s watches or smart watches have to be! Of course, as a student or as a young professional, you can’t model something like that yet. But how can the high-performance signal carriers be produced reasonably efficiently? We want to briefly summarize and explain the most important steps for you.

The art lies in excellent design for manufacturing analysis

When creating a circuit board for a specific device, the first thing to do is to capture all of the design requirements. These contain all the requirements that the circuit board in the end device must meet. For example, the size, the number of layers and the complexity of the board. one begins with the circuit diagram of the circuit board.

What is design for manufacturing analysis and its importance?

The circuit diagram resembles the floor plan of a house. Once the circuit diagram is in place, the actual design process begins. Depending on the complexity of the circuit board, you should of course use the appropriate software to create the design. If it is a technically complex circuit board, you should definitely use professional PCB design programs.

How to test the design?

When creating design for manufacturing analysis, there are “Dos” and “Don’ts”. For example, if you have created a first draft of a design, you should first test it out in detail. Once the design has been approved for production, there is no turning back. If design errors emerge during production, this can have serious financial consequences. So test the circuit board design extensively and precisely.

The production of the printed circuit board

Finally, we will give you an insight into the production of circuit boards: Once the design is in place, you have to create and export the production files. These are common by the factory to make the circuit board.

Design for Manufacturing Analysis 2021

The largest design for manufacturing analysis and PCB producers are: China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. In the three countries, printed circuit boards with a total value of over 300 billion dollars are produced annually.

What is the role of humans during production of design for manufacturing analysis?

Almost all production steps are automated. The human workers in production are responsible for quality control and for setting up and maintaining the machines. It would also not be possible to create a complex circuit board by hand. Today’s printed circuit boards can have up to 80 layers and must therefore be pressed together with absolute precision.

Such precise work is easy to do by machines for design for manufacturing analysis.

What is PCB routing?

In any electronic system, PCB routing is an essential parameter to guarantee easier communication. PCB routing takes care of a large amount of data transmitted over an electronic network. It is a system. But to ensure the quality of your routing, it is essential to provide your manufacturer with accurate and precise information.

This article is helpful to understand and to discover the different elements essential to the design for manufacturing analysis and optimal manufacture of a route. This comes on the following steps.

  • 1 PCB routing design and adjustment of component placement
  • Orientation
  • Positioning
  • The organization
  • PCB routing design: the routing of power, signal and ground tracks
  • Orientation of ground and power planes
  • The signal track connection
  • Determining the width of the network
  • PCB routing design: component separation
  • the fight against overheating difficulties
  • PCB Routing Design: Checking Your Work
  • The main parameters of the design for manufacturing analysisand a PCB routing
  • The different phases of PCB routing design
  • Recommended best practices for PCB router design

What is PCB routing?

Indeed, routing refers to a process through which it is possible to select the passages in a network with the objective of transmitting information from a sender to one or more receivers. The printed circuit, the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) has a design procedure that is sometimes complex.

But you will have an easier time design for manufacturing analysis and PCB routing if you learn the rules. The rule of component placement during routing is at the same time a science and a technical practice. It requires methodological thinking in view of the precious free space on your map. It is not a simple operation.

How the components are arranged?

Usually, a rule provides that the components come in the following basic arrangement:

  • the connectors
  • the power supply circuit
  • the precision circuit
  • the critical circuit
  • and others

What are standards which are being followed during design for manufacturing analysis?

However, there are special standards that are also important to take into account in the design for manufacturing analysis and of a PCB routing. You should take into consideration some points such as:


This rule recommends that you keep an open mind about the direction of identical components. That is, you need to make sure that similar items are pointing in the same direction. This guarantees an efficient and non-faulty weld.

The organization

At the same time, it is also advisable to install all the through elements (TH) on the upper side of the card. All this makes it possible to reduce the number of design for manufacturing analysis steps as much as possible.

PCB Routing Design: Routing power, signal and ground tracks                       

When the components are in place comes the turn of tracing the power, signal and ground tracks. This allows you to ensure that the signals take a much more unoccupied and clutter free path. To succeed in this routing phase, you must remember the following rules:

Orientation of ground and power planes

This has the advantage of protecting your card against folds. It promotes excellent component placement. But the supply of a printed circuit is done by means of the universal ramps for each source.

For this, you must ensure the width and content of your tracks without forgetting to mount the power lines in series.

How o draw best design for manufacturing and assembly?

Importance of design for manufacturing and assembly in the manufacturing process

Paying attention to design for manufacturing and assembly goes beyond the aesthetics of board assembly. Of course, choosing the best components, planning the circuits and having a good software planning is very important for the functioning of the hardware, but if the board in question doesn’t have a good layout, all this is easy to ruin. Therefore, some good practices need to be taken into account.

design for manufacturing and assembly


Small details regarding the position and size of components can make all the difference. A perfect board is one that performs its functions well for a long time. Here’s what you need to consider.

The role of proper design is vital in pcb industry. Let me explain why? In modern era, there is need of electronics which need high temperature resistance. PCB manufacturers need to design and assemble pcb boards according to the requirement.


When performing design for manufacturing and assembly, take into account the size of the tracks. It is important to keep in mind that they have resistance, that is, they have voltage drops, dissipate energy and increase the temperature when current flows through them. As these physical properties cannot be modified, this needs to be compensated for in the layout.


Ideally, use a specific calculator for track widths and predict an extra 5ºC in temperature. If there is extra space on the board then it even better. Increasing the safety margin can be useful for your project.


Many factors influence the heating of the plate and this directly influences its proper functioning. This is a point of attention for design for manufacturing and assembly because some actions need to take. In addition to the safety margin for the width of the tracks, if the board has multiple layers remember that there is a temperature difference between them. The outer layers are cooler.

design for manufacturing and assembly 2021

Why thermal vias are common?

An interesting guideline is to put extra copper on the surface where the components will be placed to provide extra surface area to dissipate heat more efficiently. Also use Thermal Vias for heat dissipation, especially when the PCB is mounted in a chassis, as it is able to help it dissipate heat.  Another simple tip is to keep components that are sensitive to heat away from other components that generate heat.


A board that has very large loops is subject to instabilities in operation, especially if they are high frequency loops. Therefore, when performing design for manufacturing and assembly, the ideal is that these cycles are as small as possible. If possible, design them so that they are surrounded by a grounded plane.


The position of the capacitors is important to the PCB design because the proper functioning of the board requires them to be close together. Otherwise, there will be unwanted inductances. To increase their efficiency, the decoupling capacitors should be as close as possible to the power pins and connected to the ground plane of the integrated circuits. Prefer to use multiple leads of the capacitor pins for a ground plane, this can reduce the inductance.


Some design for manufacturing and assembly errors result in unwanted noise. To prevent them from happening, one of the tips is to place tracks close together and tie the two together using a capacitive effect, especially when there is frequency. Take care to keep them away from other trails that might generate noise. Another precaution is not to place noisy routes close to signals that need to be silent.

Placing a grounded plane directly under tracks can lower impedance and help eliminate noise. The content in the series of articles about high speed design pcb on PCBVIET does not try to provide a complete overview of high speed design for manufacturing and assembly, because there are countless excellent and highly specialized documents and books on this topic.

What is high-speed design for manufacturing and assembly?

A PCB design is said to be a high-speed PCB design when it has very fast switching components, so fast that the leveling is completed before the signal can reach its destination. For example a signal such as the flow of water in a loop with a water valve at the top, and the high/low (1/0) state of the signal depends on whether the water lock is open or closes.

 Case 1:

To understand design for manufacturing and assembly look as the water pressure at the loop is P. The loop is closes to open, equivalent to the logic switch from 0 to 1. This process takes a period of time T and the water has flowed out to the loop head to get water.

Ø Case 2:

The water pressure at the loop is still P. The loop closes to open, equivalent to the logic switch from 0 to 1, this process also takes a period of time T’ with T’ many times smaller. Compared to T, is so small that before the water could flow out to the top of the loop, the water valve was closes.

What is the same case with High-speed pcb?

For better understanding of v design for manufacturing and assembly look these lines. In fact with high speed components, some documents even use the term “Fast edges” for high speed components. When a signal has “fast edges” it changes the way energy flows through the circuits. Basically with low speed signals you think of it as water flowing in a pipe and the friction of the water against the pipe.


For DC circuits or circuits with low switching frequency you can find out the resistance of the line and ensure that the power loss along the way does not affect the performance or signal. It is not so simple in a high speed design. Because at high speed electrons pass through the circuit lines, part of the energy transferred also includes the electromagnetic energy around the circuit due to the electrons themselves.