Come risolvere i difetti dei ponti di saldatura nell'assemblaggio di PCB?

Pubblicato il 07/07/2020

PCB Assembly involves a wide range of technologies. From single-sided through-hole mounting to complex double-sided reflow assembly, and ball grid array (BGA) devices that require selective wave soldering. When wave soldering these boards, it is often seen that bridges are formed in certain fixed areas (such as connectors), and these defects can actually be predicted in advance. The bridging is usually caused by the design of the board or the bracket used during welding. It is not easy to solve it completely. Therefore, only by repairing to eliminate defects, thus prolonging the production cycle.

In the process of using wave soldering for circuit board assembly, welding bridging is one of the defects that often occurs. To solve this problem, in addition to improving the process parameters, a new type of selective de-bridge device can be added to the wave soldering equipment. Tests have proved that the use of this system can greatly reduce the bridging of circuit boards.

Welding bridge

Soldering bridging is caused by an unstable change of solder. It occurs in the solder reflow area after wave soldering. When the board leaves the wave crest, the solder suddenly retracts, causing the solder to reflow, and a large amount of molten solder in the reflow zone eventually forms a bridge. The solder in the molten state will easily change its wettability under any slight disturbance, so the formation of solder bridges has a lot to do with Assemblaggio PCB and wave soldering processes.

Selective de-bridge

After wave soldering, it is necessary to find the bridge and then carry out rework, which will increase the production cost and workload. And it is generally believed that repaired solder joints will reduce the reliability of the product. After years of research, engineers have developed many techniques to reduce bridging in the final stage of wave soldering. For example, the hot air knife treatment of the entire board after welding (blowing a bunch of air or nitrogen to the molten solder joint to remove the bridge) is a standard technology that has been used in wave soldering for many years. However, this method has no selectivity for the welding area, so that good solder joints are also affected to a certain extent.


Recently, with the gradual maturity of process control and computer control and the application of circuit board tracking systems, it has been possible to develop practical selective de-bridge tools to be added to the wave soldering process. This new technology can select areas that are prone to welding defects to be de-bridged, without touching other good solder joints.

Selective de-bridging can be achieved by adjusting the direction of air flow so that it is only aimed at the area where bridging may occur. This tool is used where the circuit board has just exited the crest, when the solder is still in a molten state, the spray range and other process parameters are first set by the program and controlled by the computer in the soldering system. The key to achieving selective de-bridging is to accurately adjust the air flow and make the nozzle as close to the PCB as possible without contact.

Evaluation data

Before deciding to use the selective de-bridge system, let’s compare it with the conventional hot air knife technology. After comparison, it was found that the hot air knife technology could not meet our requirements due to various reasons, such as incompatibility with existing equipment and high overall cost. In order to further determine the effect of the selective de-bridge system, we selected 8 test boards for evaluation and referenced the historical data of bridge defects related to the circuit board design.

The status of these models is as follows:

Samples A and B are about 12.7×7.5cm in size and are double-sided surface mount boards. Both boards contain a through-hole (PTH) connector that often produces a bridge at the bottom after wave soldering. Instead of using a selective soldering bracket, an adjustable bracket is used for soldering; all but the connector are surface-mounted The components must be wave soldered, but only the connectors need to be bridged.

The size of model C and D is about 30×15cm. The two boards have different surface mount components, but they have the same PTH component and multiple connectors. The bridging occurs randomly on the connector and in the middle of some surface mount components. Welding brackets are not used for welding, but are transferred by the claws on the conveyor belt. The de-bridge device is not used selectively but for the entire board.


I campioni E ed F misurano circa 53,3 × 12,7 cm e sono pannelli a montaggio superficiale su due lati. Entrambi i modelli hanno più connettori PTH su un lato e utilizzano staffe di saldatura selettive per la saldatura a onde e sui connettori si verifica un bridging casuale.

La dimensione del modello G è di circa 38,1 × 35,6 cm. La scheda contiene componenti a montaggio superficiale che richiedono una saldatura a riflusso su due lati e staffe per saldatura selettiva per i componenti PTH. Il componente PTH contiene più connettori, che si trovano in tutta la scheda, e la scheda può essere leggermente deformata. A causa della staffa di saldatura selettiva, il dispositivo di de-bridge non può essere troppo vicino alla scheda e non può essere utilizzato completamente.

La dimensione del modello H è di circa 50,8 × 38,1 cm. Le altre condizioni del modello sono esattamente le stesse del modello G, ma c'è una presa PGA aggiuntiva. Dispone inoltre di staffe di saldatura opzionali e consente la deformazione. Il test mostra che il difetto del prodotto è notevolmente ridotto dopo aver utilizzato il sistema di de-bridge selettivo, ma il modello di piccole dimensioni testato non può vedere l'effetto dello strumento a ponte, quindi abbiamo condotto una valutazione interna più ampia.

In conclusione

Il sistema di de-bridge selettivo è stato valutato internamente per un periodo di tre mesi prima dell'installazione formale. Dopo aver ottenuto il consenso del cliente, il fornitore dell'attrezzatura ha installato il sistema de-bridge su una saldatrice ad onde. Una valutazione completa di vari dati come tempi di inattività, costi operativi e manutenzione.

As mentioned earlier, eight different complex circuit boards were used in this internal test. The results show that the defect rate of each board is improved by an average of 84%. The effect of the selective de-bridge system mainly depends on the PCB assembly design, the optimization of process parameters, and the tools used. However, the system software does make the settings more systematic. And can be reused.

The reduction of bridging depends to some extent on the shape of the components, the degree of mixing, the type of bracket and the wave soldering equipment. For different situations, the estimated cost of repairs will be different.