how to assemble a pcb boardPosted on 2020-10-14
How to assemble a pcb board?
How to assemble a PCB board.
PCBs (Printed circuit boards) are at the heart of modern electronic equipment. Without them, it would be many of these electronics without PCB boards. But how can one assemble a printed circuit board;
Let’s begin with the tools one needs to have. You will need a pair of small pliers, a small wire cutter, a soldering iron, and some other tools like a voltmeter and a dental probe. You can also have a pair of magnifiers as they will prove helpful. Something else you must have is an anti-static mat which comes with a wrist strap and work light. Other tools you need to have are the solder removal tools because in some instances one may be required to repeat the whole process. You also need a damp sponge which will help you be able to clean the tip of your iron between solder connections.
You will need soldering equipment to be able to assemble a PCB board. You can go for the simple and inexpensive iron plugs which can be controlled in a thermostatically way. This is because electronics normally work at temperature ranges of 15 to 30 degrees.
-The Types of Solder.
There are just two types of solder that are ideal for electronics work. There is the lead-free and the lead/tin alloy. Both of these melt at around 360 degrees Fahrenheit thus making them ideal for electronics work. Lead-free solder is preferred mostly because it is environmentally friendly.
-What is the proper soldering technique?
The proper technique involves first heating the surfaces being soldered until the solder being used melts in a way that it flows freely among the surfaces. Ensure that you use enough solder to bond the intended parts. Look out for cold solder joints which happen when one applies insufficient heat and the solder does not flow properly. To perfect your soldering technique, practice is required and the skills get perfected. For first-timers, try using something else to practice before attempting to assemble a real circuit board. It is important to avoid breathing the fumes and smoke generated by the flux in the solder.
-How to solder through-hole Components?
To do this ensure that on one layer of PCB, insert the component and then bend the lead slightly, to be able to keep everything in place. Also, ensure that your soldering iron is inclined at a 45-degree angle to the board you are working on. See to it that the tip of the iron is contacting both PCB and the lead of your components all at the same time. Ensure that you have applied the solder from the opposite side of the tip. Then you should heat the surfaces until the solder flows on the tip side of the work in a free mode. Be keen to ensure that the pad is not overheated for this may have some damaging effects n the PCB.
-How to solder a two-sided board.
The way of doing this is similar to that of soldering through a hole with only one exception. When carrying out your soldering activity, ensure you apply sufficient heat and solder to ensure that the solder flows on a free mode through the hole to the top side of the PCB board.
What are the different electronic components you are likely to run into when dealing with a PCB board?
There are about four types of electronic components that you are likely to come across. There are the through-hole active components which include integrated circuits, transistors, and diodes. Then there are the through-hole passive components which include the inductors, capacitors, and resistors. The other parts are the surface actives and passives. What one should be aware of is that passive components do not require any kind of special handling apart from observing the polarity of electrolytic capacitors.
It can be quite a joy to be able to design your circuit board. A custom PCB allows one to design a circuit tailored to suit their own needs. The reality is that most PCBs are designed with computer-aided design programs (CAD). These kinds of programs are really expensive and can overwhelm the efforts of someone who wants to learn how to assemble a PCB board.
When assembling your printed circuit board handle it by the edges to prevent adding contaminates which may make the soldering process more difficult. Carefully inspect the board before beginning to assemble it for any obvious errors. If the board appears to be too complex, ensure you have an ohmmeter to checkout for shorts and continuity. Place your tools in a way that you will be able to retrieve them when needed during the assembling process. The method you use to arrange your parts will entirely be up to you according to whichever way works for you best. For instance, if you use some sort of bins or trays, ensure that they are static proof to avoid messing up the semiconductors. If everything is good, the assembling process can begin. Start with the passive components. You can begin with the resistors. For through-hole resistors, you should bend the leads at the body in about 90 degrees. The next thing you do is insert the resistor through the board, then tight it up against the board and then bend the leads a little bit to be able to hold the resistor in place while you are soldering. Once the resistor is in place the capacitors like that of the resistors while still observing the polarity of the electrolytic capacitors. When done, put any transistors and diodes your circuit may be having. You can then mount the ICs if your project needs one. You should note that some ICs in dip packages come with the leads a little bent on the outward. You can try bending them a little inwards o be able to fit the pattern of the hole. Also, be keen to check if the device is oriented in the right direction. Having done this, you will be sure that you have assembled your PCB board in the correct way. you can then to a quick check-up to make sure you have fixed everything at its right place and in the right way.